One of the first line organ defense systems is the gastrointestinal tract (GIT).It is in the GIT that most inflammatory diseases start from. The GIT is an intricate system that protects the internal physiological environment from external pathological insult. The digestive defense system involves the probiotics, enzymes, digestive juices, immune cells and immune modulators, and a healthy absorptive mucosal lining. Factors like infection, stress, food preservatives and additives, toxins, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs, trauma or burns may damage the digestive ecosystem, reduce effective digestion and immune protection, and subsequently increase damage to the digestive lining. Increased permeability of the digestive lining increases the absorption of undigested food particles, toxic molecules and pathological organisms which may significantly increase the risk of systemic degenerative diseases including skin disorders2.
Impaired probiotic balance increases the risk of dysbiosis, which is the overgrowth of pathological organisms like fungi, parasites and bacteria. Dysbiosis is proposed to be a major cause of diseases like skin disorders and food allergies, and may be associated with urticaria, allergy, anxiety, depression and cognitive dysfunction, and metabolic disease1.
TURMERIC 95% EXTRACT/CURCUMIN (Curcuma longa)
Curcumin enhances digestive health by:
• stimulating the release of digestive enzymes like amylase, lipase, and chymotrypsin which support proper digestion of food25,
• stimulating bile secretion and bile flow which enhances digestion of fats and promotes elimination of toxic waste products27,28,
• protecting against infections and inflammation in the digestive tract. These insults could increase permeability of the gut lining, and subsequently induce immune hyper-responsiveness and allergic reactions manifesting through the skin25,26.
BURDOCK (Arctium lappa)
Burdock supports digestive health53 by providing inulin which serves as a fibre and prebiotic. As a bitter herb, it also stimulates bile flow54 and gastric juices which supports proper digestion, and promotes the elimination of metabolic waste products and toxic by-products, like drugs and heavy metals52.
SCHISANDRA (Schisandra chinensis)
Schisandra benefits gastrointestinal disorders like hyper- or hypo secretion of gastric juices, gastric infection, inflammation, and ulcers84. It regulates bowel motility, and improves levels of beneficial probiotics 85,86.
SPIRULINA (Spirulina platensis)
Spirulina is an excellent prebiotic, acting as food source for various beneficial intestinal flora like Lactobacillus and Bifidus species19. It also displays significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, and antibiotic abilities20-22,66. Research demonstrates that Spirulina provides substantial protection against toxin-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD induced by toxins is associated with immune cell infiltration, chronic inflammation, ulceration, swelling of the digestive lining, bleeding and tissue degeneration. Spirulina supplementation significantly reduces the toxin-induced inflammation, immune cell infiltration and abscess formation in the digestive lining, and stimulates healing67. Owing to its high concentration of antioxidants, Spirulina possesses great anticancer potential, and may reduce the risk of cancer development and progression. Research validates its supportive use in prevention and treatment of colon cancer 68-70.
KELP (Ascophyllum nodosum)
Kelp, like Spirulina, is a rich source of fibre which supports digestive health in multiple ways. It improves bowel movement, serves as a prebiotic food source for beneficial gut flora, reduces gastrointestinal inflammation, and subsequently reduces the incidence of inflammatory bowel conditions, and colorectal cancer71. Kelp supports efficient detoxification of toxins excreted into the bowel via the bile, by improving bowel movement, and stimulating healthy probiotic levels. Probiotics protect the body against toxic chemicals, pesticides and heavy metals by blocking its absorption, binding and degrading the toxic agents, and promoting its elimination via feces72-79.
Animals experience tension similarly to humans. Stress induced abnormal behaviour is related to breed, sex, environmental changes, behaviour of the owner, and experiences as a young animal. In animals, stress associated with adaptation-related problems and trauma can cause skin disturbances like atopic dermatitis, itchiness, and lick granuloma3.
Curcumin demonstrates substantial benefit in emotional and mental well-being with its balancing effects on neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine5,8,9. Curcumin also has powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory attributes, and may be of exceptional benefit to the health and function of the animal nervous system. It protects the nervous system against pathological nerve cell degeneration, and enhances the regeneration of damaged nerve cells. It further stimulates the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF attributes to growth and maturation of nerve cells and promotes their survival10. Curcumin provides protection against neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders like age related cognitive decline, depression, epilepsy, stroke, toxin-induced neurotoxicity and tardive dyskinesia, and stress induced learning and memory deficits 4-7,10.
Schisandra is well researched for its adaptogenic effects, which improves the ability of an organism to adapt to various kinds of stress factors, and protect against damage caused by such factors. Schisandra protects healthy function of multiple body systems like the nervous system, cardiovascular system, immune system, liver, kidneys, digestive system, and skin. It improves mental and physical performance by enhancing physical endurance, accuracy of movement, mental energy and focus. It aids in neurological disorders like depression, anxiety and neurosis, alleviates stress related fatigue, and improves emotional wellbeing.84
Allergic, inflammatory skin disorders are characterized by increased IgE levels, and raised levels of white blood cells including eosinophils, lymphocytes and histamine-releasing mast cells, which provoke an allergic inflammatory response45,46. Th2 helper lymphocytes are the most prominent cell types involved in the development of allergic dermatitis. Unregulated increased Th2 cell activity increases the release of inflammatory mediators, which lead to itching and impaired barrier function of the mucosal membranes and skin47.
Curcumin, well-known for its immune-modulating properties, alleviates symptoms associated with allergic immune responses by regulating Th1(inflammatory) and Th2 cytokine (autoimmunity/allergy) responses, inhibiting IgE levels, and inhibiting mast cell degranulation which releases histamine23. These properties give Curcumin great potential for clinical management of allergic reactions like asthma, food allergies and allergy related skin conditions24.
Burdock exerts anti-allergy protection by reducing the release of mast cells which are the main effector cells involved in allergic and immediate hypersensitivity reactions48. Burdock has also been found to increase both Th1 and Th2 cell counts, but suppresses allergy related Th2 function, alleviating allergic reactions, but increasing immune protection49.
Astragalus is traditionally used for its potent immune modulating actions. It is not only indicated for chronic immune weakness, but also for immune hyper-responsiveness associated with allergies. Studies indicate that Astragalus significantly regulates the Th1 and Th2 immune response, by increasing expression of Th1 and decreasing Th2 dominance in allergic conditions. It also reduces eosinophil infiltration, interleukin-4 and 13, and IgE concentrations, with a resultant alleviation of allergy symptoms91,92. Astragalus is also known for improving resistance against pathogenic infections.
Schisandra is traditionally used to treat multiple immune disorders, including allergies, eczema and allergic skin conditions. Research reports that Schisandra’s anti-allergy effects are related to inhibited degranulation, transcription, and translation of allergy-related inflammatory mediators in IgE-antigen complex cells88. It reduces IgE, IgM and histamine serum level, decreases mast cell infiltration, alleviates epidermal hyperplasia and reduces scratch frequency89.
Propolis enhances immune function by increasing the activity of bactericidal immune cells, and increasing antibody production123,124. It also demonstrates anti-allergy activity by inhibiting histamine release, decreasing inflammatory mediators, and inhibiting airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness.125-126
Spirulina is well researched for its immune modulating activities. It may enhance immune function by increasing cellular destruction of infectious agents, increasing antibody protection, and promoting production of other immune modulating chemicals. Spirulina can also reduce immune system hyper-responsiveness as in the case of allergies, arthritis, and organ transplants90.
To strengthen the natural defense systems and improve resistance against chronic disease conditions like allergies, autoimmunity, weakened immune function and chronic skin infections, it is vital to reduce the burden of internal toxic wastes and by-products, and heal inflammation caused. This can be accomplished by:
- enhancing neutralization of toxic products and free radicals through antioxidant scavenging,
- promoting efficient function of Phase I and Phase II enzyme detoxification systems. (Phase I enzymes metabolize toxins into reactive intermediates or free radicals) and Phase II enzymes neutralize the toxins from Phase I, and facilitate their excretion.)
- promoting elimination of these wastes via the liver, kidneys, lungs, digestive tract, and skin,
- and providing essential nutrients for optimal regeneration and healing.
Spirulina is a rich supply of nutrients like protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, and antioxidants. It nourishes the body, protects against disease-causing agents, and promotes healing. Spirulina supports systemic detoxification systems by neutralizing and eliminating toxic chemicals like pesticides, chemical drugs and heavy metals like lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. It also protects against liver damage caused by such toxins 11-17. Spirulina also enhances healthy probiotic levels which supports detoxification of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, and pathogenic organisms 72-83.
Curcumin supports detoxification of various circulating toxins by downregulating Phase I detoxification and upregulating Phase II detoxification systems. In addition, to its depurative actions, its marked antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties provides Curcumin with great efficacy in reducing the total body burden of inflammatory- and toxic stress. These types of stressors, weaken immune protection and predispose the mammal to skin diseases associated with microbial infections, allergies, cancer, and autoimmunity.
Burdock is traditionally known as a depurative, which enhances systemic detoxification systems, and promotes the elimination of toxins. Burdock is also a liver protective extract. It reduces toxin-induced liver damage by enhancing cytochrome P-450 detoxification of toxins, and increasing the activity of antioxidant glutathione to reduce inflammatory damage43,44. Burdock is a bitter herb which stimulates bile secretion, enhancing elimination of toxins via the digestive tract. As a diuretic, it also supports kidney function50,51, and promotes elimination of wastes via the kidneys. As a diaphoretic54, Burdock promotes the excretion of toxins via the skin. Burdock is commonly used to treat various skin conditions like psoriasis, eczema, acne, boils, abscesses, and allergic dermatitis.
Schisandra exerts antioxidant and liver protective activities. Research show that it enhances detoxification, and protects liver cells against toxic damage, by reducing inflammation, neutralizing free radical-induced oxidative damage, and activating Phase II detoxification enzymes to facilitate elimination of the toxins93.
Propolis counteracts the toxic effects of various chemicals on the liver, like paracetamol and carbon tetrachloride (ingredient in solvents, cleaning products, aerosols and refrigerants)127,128. Propolis, with its significant antioxidant properties, enhances protection against cancer. It has the ability to inhibit DNA synthesis in tumour cells, induce cancer cell death, and activate macrophages to produce immune modulators and regulate immune cell activity. It also demonstrates benefit when used in combination of chemotherapy agents, by improving the efficiency of the chemotherapy drugs3 and reducing its side effects on immune cells, liver and kidneys129.
Chronic pathogenic infections detrimentally strain immune system function, and weakens important defense mechanisms. It is then that the opportunity for secondary infections dramatically increases. If the animal is suffering from a chronic infection, it is of utmost importance to support and strengthen immunity, and eradicate any pathological organism as far as possible. UNTAMED SKIN + provides powerful and well researched nutraceuticals with strong antimicrobial bio-actives to naturally support the immune defense system in destroying and removing these pathological organisms, and improve immune protection against future attacks.
Spirulina strengthens immune function and displays significant antimicrobial activity against multiple pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses, and parasites, like E. coli, P. vulgaris, C. albicans, S. aureus, B. subtilis55,66. Research shows that it has pronounced anti-parasitic activity against parasites like Demodex canis which cause inflammatory skin infection 18.
Curcumin significantly stimulates immune protection against multiple bacteria, parasites, fungi, and viruses which weaken immune defenses, and decrease the resistance of the skin against microbial infections. Curcumin provides broad-spectrum antimicrobial protection 36,37,34,64,65 against:
- bacteria like Staphylococcus epidermis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiela pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and many others,
- viruses like influenza viruses, herpes, coxsackie, hepatitis viruses, papilloma viruses, encephalitis viruses and many more,
- and fungi like Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, and other skin fungi like T rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, E. floccosum and M. gypseum, and parasites Schistosomas, Toxocara canis, Eimeria species, Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Giardia lamblia, Leishmania and Cryptosporidium.
Burdock has antimicrobial activity against multiple bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, antifungal activity against Candida albicans40,41, and antiviral activity against Herpes viruses and adenovirus42. These antimicrobial properties give Burdock significant potential for the treatment of various inflammatory and infectious skin disorders like eczema, acne, boils, and psoriasis.
Astragalus is clinically indicated for chronic infections, immune deficiency, cancer, chronic wounds and lesions, liver infection and heart disease. It demonstrates significant antiviral properties and enhances immune function by various mechanisms like: increasing phagocytic activity of white blood cells, increasing the production of immune mediators like interferon, and improving natural killer cell activity 94-95. Astragalus may further reverse damages to the immune systems caused by toxic substances, radiation and ageing 96.
Propolis, a protective substance in bee hives, has powerful inherent antimicrobial activity 97. Propolis demonstrates significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus, Enterococcos, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Mycobacterium, and E. coli.131-133 It inhibits the growth of various fungi like Candida species, Trichosporon and Rhodotorula species 130, which infect areas like the skin, ears, eyes, digestive tract and lungs. Research demonstrates its anti-parasitic effect against Giardia lamblia, Toxoplasmas, Leishmania, and Trypanosoma species 134,135. Propolis, used internally and applied externally, shows promising potential in the treatment of bacterial infections like Staphylococcus, external ear infections, fungal skin infection, parasites, immune deficiency, dental disease, eye infections and liver disease 98.
Inflammation is the initiation phase of all chronic disease states like: autoimmune disease, psoriasis, allergies, Alzheimer’s, joint disease, asthma, fibromyalgia, cognitive decline, learning and behavioural problems, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, heart disease, eczema, lupus, stroke and many more. Inflammation can exist for several years in an organism before clinical symptoms manifest. It is triggered by factors like stress, allergens, toxins, unhealthy food, microbial infections and autoimmunity. Inflammation can occur in two stages. The first stage, acute inflammation, is mediated by the immune system to heal damaged or infected tissue. However, if the inflammation persists, chronic inflammation sets in which predisposes the organism to degenerative disease. The constituents in UNTAMED SKIN+ is validated by research to provide effective anti-inflammatory protection against multiple inflammatory agents. They therefore support the body’s natural defenSe systems to initiate efficient tissue regeneration, alleviating the risk of chronic inflammation, and promoting restoration of all body tissues, including the skin.
Spirulina is a rich source of anti-inflammatory antioxidants like phycocyanin and beta carotene. It is supported by numerous animal studies for its pronounced protective action against inflammatory insult form environmental toxins, heavy metals, chemicals, drugs, and inflammation. Spirulina inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation caused by these agents, and significantly alleviates associated pathological degeneration56-63.
Curcumin, a powerful antioxidant, reduces inflammation by multiple mechanisms like inhibiting pro-inflammatory signaling, inhibiting immune cell migration to the active site of inflammation, and reducing excessive existing inflammation by decreasing the activity of inflammatory enzymes29-35. Both Spirulina and Curcumin have remarkable wound healing abilities.
Burdock enhances systemic antioxidant protection and scavenges inflammatory free radicals. It also inhibits the release of inflammatory mediators like histamine and prostaglandins38. Burdock can also inhibit excessive production of nitric oxide which is involved in multiple inflammatory disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmunity, atherosclerosis and chronic inflammation39.
Some of the anti-inflammatory effects of Propolis include suppression of leukotrine and prostaglandin inflammatory mediators, and the lipoxygenase pathway in arachidonic metabolism. Subsequently it may alleviate inflammatory symptoms like swelling, discomfort, and pain.136-138
Schisandra, owing to its anti-inflammatory properties, is effectively used for the treatment of various inflammatory and allergic skin conditions like contact dermatitis,87 and eczema.
UNTAMED SKIN+ is fortified with three superfoods: SPIRULINA, WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE and KELP.
Spirulina has exceptional nutritional properties with its rich composition of antioxidants, protein, fatty acids, fibre, vitamins and minerals. It serves as a prebiotic, supporting a healthy digestive environment; enhances physical performance 111,112; improves insulin sensitivity and blood glucose control108,110; supports immune function, protecting against allergies113; provides marked antioxidant protection; supports detoxification of toxic chemicals and heavy metals like fluoride, lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic100-104, promotes liver health114; exerts neuroprotective effects, reducing the risk of cognitive decline, Alzheimer’s’ and Parkinson’s disease105-107; and reduces systemic degenerative inflammation. Spirulina enhances overall health and wellbeing, and increases protection against various chronic disease like cardiovascular disease108,109, skin conditions, allergies, cancer, liver disease, and joint disease 99.
WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE
Whey Protein Concentrate, like the protein provided by Spirulina, is considered a complete protein source, containing all amino acids required for healthy physiological function. Protein is an essential component of all living cells, and a substrate for a multitude of physiological processes. Whey Protein have significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immune modulating properties. It enhances protection against toxins, viruses, and bacteria, reduces the risk of various cancers, promotes cardiovascular-, liver-, digestive and hormonal health, maintains healthy skin and bone, supports healthy body weight, and promotes a sense of wellbeing. Whey protein contains amino acids which form vital structural components in muscle cells, ligaments and tendons. Insufficient protein intake predisposes the animal to poor condition, muscle wasting, osteoporosis, impaired recovery after injury or training, and decreased mental ability. Protein-rich diets promote healthy body condition and supports general well-being.120-121
Kelp is a nutrient-dense seaweed, rich in minerals, proteins, antioxidants, and bio-actives that are not present in terrestrial foods. Kelp supplementation is associated with significant antiviral protection, reduced gum disease and plague formation on teeth122, enhanced cardiovascular health, improved body composition, decreased risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome, improved digestive health, neuroprotection, decreased risk of cancer, maintenance of bone mineral density, improved joint mobility, and decreased joint pain associated with arthritis115-119.